NAD+ Precursors and Their Potential for Longevity | Purovitalis

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NAD+ Precursors and Their Potential for Longevity: Research

NAD+ precursors in recent research. Comparing NAD+ supplementation and abosorption

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a crucial coenzyme that plays a vital role in various biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and regulation of circadian rhythms. As we age, NAD+ levels naturally decline, leading to a range of age-related diseases. Direct supplementation of NAD+ faces challenges due to its instability and limited cellular uptake. However, NAD+ precursors, such as Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), and Dihydronicotinamide Riboside (NRH), offer a promising alternative to increase NAD+ levels. These precursors can be converted into NAD+ within cells, bypassing the limitations of direct supplementation. This article explores the importance of NAD+ in human health, highlights the role of NAD+ precursors, and discusses their potential therapeutic benefits, absorption mechanisms, and safety concerns.

Article Highlights

  • NAD+ precursors such as NR, NMN, and NRH provide a more effective method for boosting NAD+ levels in comparison to direct NAD+ supplementation. This approach offers a more viable and efficient means of increasing NAD+ levels.
  • These precursors can be converted into NAD+ through the salvage pathway, replenishing NAD+ within cells and supporting cellular function.
  • NAD+ precursors have shown promising results in preclinical models, suggesting potential therapeutic benefits in aging and age-related diseases.

The Vital Role of NAD+ in the Human Body

NAD+ is a critical coenzyme involved in numerous cellular processes. It serves as an electron carrier in redox reactions, playing a key role in energy production and ATP generation. NAD+ is also essential for the function of sirtuins, enzymes that regulate metabolic pathways and have implications in aging and longevity. As we age, NAD+ levels naturally decline, leading to various age-related diseases. The decline in NAD+ impairs cellular function and contributes to health issues.

Challenges with absorbing direct NAD+ supplementation

Supplementing NAD+ directly to counteract its age-related decline seems like a straightforward solution, right? Unfortunately, the issue is more complex. NAD+ is not stable outside of cells, leading to rapid degradation when taken orally. Additionally, its size and charge make it difficult to penetrate cells. Even injecting NAD+ into the bloodstream has limited success in elevating NAD+ levels within cells across various tissues.

To tackle these obstacles, researchers are exploring NAD+ precursors – smaller molecules that the body can convert into NAD+ inside cells. These precursors, such as Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), and the newer Dihydronicotinamide Riboside (NRH), offer a more promising approach to bolstering NAD+ levels.

Related: Foods that contain NAD+

Understanding NAD+ Precursors

The Chemistry of NAD+ Precursors: NR, NMN, and NRH

Longevity and vitality seekers have turned their attention to Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors. Each precursor has its own molecular identity and pathway to boost NAD+ levels in our cells.

Nicotinamide Riboside (NR): The B3 Vitamin Prodigy

NR is a lesser-known sibling of niacin and nicotinamide, part of the B3 vitamin family. It has a similar structure to niacin but with an added ribose group, a sugar molecule. This ribose makes Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) a special precursor to NAD+. NR is transformed into NRMP and then NMN, which are immediate precursors to NAD+. NR provides an efficient way to produce NAD+, bypassing certain barriers.

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN): A Direct Route to NAD+

NMN is the most direct precursor to NAD+ in terms of biochemical conversion. It consists of nicotinamide, ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. NMN directly incorporates into NAD+ through a condensation reaction with adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Recent findings indicate that NMN converts to NR before entering cells, as NR crosses cell membranes more easily. Once inside the cell, NR transforms back into NMN and participates in NAD+ synthesis.

Dihydronicotinamide Riboside (NRH): The Emerging Contender

NRH, a new addition to NAD+ precursors, differs from NR by having an extra pair of hydrogen atoms. This change in oxidation state may affect its interaction with NAD+ biosynthesis machinery in cells. NRH is being studied as a potential way to raise NAD+ levels, although its exact role and effectiveness in humans are still being investigated.

Related: NMN vs NR the comparison

How Precursors Contribute to NAD+ Biosynthesis

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) are highly promising precursors for replenishing cellular NAD+ levels. They offer a revolutionary approach to counteracting the limitations of direct NAD+ supplementation. Through their utilization of salvage pathways, NR and NMN undergo conversion into NAD+, effectively preventing its depletion. This breakthrough in scientific research provides a viable solution to address the decline of NAD+ in aging and certain diseases. By fueling essential energy-producing reactions at a cellular level, NR and NMN have the potential to unlock new pathways for enhanced health and vitality.

The Science of Absorption

When discussing NAD+, we often wonder how the body absorbs and converts its precursors into this essential coenzyme. This process, from intake to conversion, showcases the body’s complex biochemistry.

Inside the Body: From Precursor to NAD+

Once inside the body, these precursors embark on a fascinating journey of transformation. The first stop for NR after absorption is the liver, where it meets NR kinases, enzymes that phosphorylate NR, adding a phosphate group to convert it into NMN.

In the case of NMN that bypassed direct absorption, once it is converted back from NR to NMN in tissues, it faces the same fate as NR-derived NMN. This NMN then encounters another enzyme—NMN adenylyltransferase. This enzyme facilitates the condensation of NMN with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell, to finally produce NAD+.

Related: Increase absorption with Liposomal Technology

Beyond Energy: The Broader Role of NAD+

The significance of NAD+ extends beyond energy production; it’s also pivotal in cell signaling. For example, when sirtuins use NAD+, they break it down into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose. This process not only supports the protein’s function but also sends signals to various parts of the cell, directing how to allocate energy and when to express or silence genes.

In sirtuin-mediated deacetylation, a part of the NAD+ molecule—ADP-ribose—is transferred to target proteins, altering their structure and function. This action can affect everything from metabolism to circadian rhythms to inflammatory responses.

The Role of Nicotinamide Riboside Kinases (NRKs)

Critical to the conversion process are NRKs, which are present in multiple tissues throughout the body. These enzymes’ primary job is to convert NR to NMN. The presence of NRKs in a variety of tissues suggests a system-wide network designed for efficient NAD+ production.

NRK1, for instance, is expressed highly in peripheral tissues like muscles, while NRK2 shows elevated levels in organs like the heart and brain. This distribution hints at a tailored approach where different tissues regulate NAD+ production as per their metabolic demands.

A Cellular Perspective

When NR or NMN, after conversion, enters cells, it passes into the cytosol, the intracellular fluid where the first steps of NAD+ synthesis take place. Here, NMN merges with ATP to create NAD+. The newly formed NAD+ then diffuses into the mitochondria, becoming an integral part of the energy generation process.

Notably, every conversion step from precursor to NAD+ involves enzymes that are responsive to the body’s metabolic status. This implies a tightly regulated system where NAD+ production can be ramped up or down based on cellular energy needs, stress levels, and other physiological cues.

The Potential of NAD+ Boosting

The benefits of boosting NAD+ levels through these precursors are multifaceted. Research indicates that higher NAD+ levels can promote healthy aging, enhance DNA repair, support cognitive function, and even improve athletic performance by optimizing energy metabolism.

But perhaps more importantly, these pathways have opened the door to potential therapeutic interventions for age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and metabolic conditions. By understanding and targeting the specific steps involved in NAD+ biosynthesis, we could refine treatments that enhance the body’s innate repair mechanisms and metabolic processes.

Ultimately, the ability of these precursors to be transformed into NAD+ underpins their promise as dietary supplements and potential medical therapies. While the journey from a precursor molecule in a supplement pill to a functioning NAD+ molecule in a cell is complex, it holds the key to unlocking an array of health benefits, the full extent of which science continues to explore.

Potential Side Effects and Safety Concerns

Safety Profile of NR

Initial safety assessments have generally indicated that NAD+ precursors are safe.
In clinical settings, researchers have administered these compounds to study participants without observing any significant adverse effects. Specifically, studies reveal that humans tolerate oral administration of NR well, even at high doses of up to 2000 milligrams per day. The side effects reported have been mild and transient, such as nausea, fatigue, headaches, diarrhea, stomach discomfort, and indigestion. These side effects appear to be dose-dependent and usually resolve on their own without the need for intervention.

Safety Profile of NMN

Similarly, NMN has been studied for its safety profile and has demonstrated a good level of tolerance among subjects in research studies. The side effects associated with NMN are comparable to those of NR, with few adverse reactions reported. Notably, human studies involving NMN are more limited compared to NR, but the existing data suggests a favorable safety profile.

Related: Study on the Safety and Efficacy of NMN

NRH and Ongoing Testing

NRH, as a more recent entry in the field of NAD+ precursors, is still undergoing rigorous testing. Preliminary data from animal models have not shown overt toxicity, but comprehensive human studies are required to confirm these findings. It is essential to understand that the metabolism and effects of substances can differ between species, and what is safe in animals may not always directly translate to humans.

Consideration of Metabolic Pathways

Another point of consideration is the impact of NAD+ precursors on the metabolic pathways they are part of. As the science of metabolism is incredibly complex, perturbing the levels of a central metabolite like NAD+ could have a cascade of effects throughout various biological systems. Thus, it is important that long-term studies are undertaken to fully understand the ramifications of chronic NAD+ precursor supplementation.

The interactions between NAD+ metabolism and host-gut microbiota represent another layer of complexity in understanding the full impact of NAD+ precursor supplementation. The gut microbiome plays a role in the metabolism of many substances, including drugs and dietary components. Given that the microbiota can influence the levels and activity of metabolites within the body, the interaction between NAD+ precursors and the microbiome warrants closer examination, as it could affect the efficacy and safety of these compounds.

Latest Research and Future Directions

Understanding the Pharmacokinetics of NAD+ Precursors

Recent studies have begun to map out the pharmacokinetics—the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion—of NAD+ precursors in the human body. For example, a study in “Nature Communications” demonstrated that the liver efficiently converts NR into NAD+ following oral ingestion, with almost no NR reaching systemic circulation intact. This finding significantly impacts the dosing and frequency of NAD+ precursor intake. Current research focuses on determining the most effective regimens for maintaining elevated NAD+ levels in the blood and tissues.

NAD+ Precursors and Metabolic Disorders

A considerable amount of research has been focused on the relationship between NAD+ precursors and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity. Clinical trials have investigated the effects of these compounds on insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers. Preliminary results suggest that NAD+ precursor supplementation may improve metabolic function, although the outcomes vary depending on the specific precursor and the population being studied. NMN, in particular, has shown promise in animal models of obesity and diabetes, and human studies are underway to confirm these effects.

Cardiovascular Health and NAD+ Precursors

The heart is an energy-demanding organ, and its health is tightly linked to mitochondrial function. NAD+ precursors have been studied for their cardioprotective properties, with NMN showing potential in reducing heart disease risk. In mice studies, researchers have found that NMN supplementation improves blood flow and reduces the size of infarcts following ischemic events. This discovery could lead to new interventions for heart disease patients, although human trials are necessary to confirm these promising results.

Neuroprotection and Cognitive Enhancement

Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant challenge to modern medicine. Some of the latest breakthroughs indicate that NAD+ precursors could provide neuroprotective effects. For instance, in models of Alzheimer’s disease, NMN improves cognitive function, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal integrity. Researchers believe that the underlying mechanisms include increased mitochondrial biogenesis and the activation of sirtuins, which contribute to neuroprotection. Researchers are now pushing these studies into clinical trials to evaluate their impact on human cognitive health.

NAD+ Precursors and Longevity

The link between NAD+ and longevity has been a compelling narrative in age-related research. Studies involving yeast, worms, and mice have found that increasing NAD+ levels can extend lifespan, presumably by activating sirtuins and improving mitochondrial function. This line of inquiry is expanding into human studies, with researchers seeking to determine if NAD+ precursors can mimic these effects in people and potentially stave off the biological markers of aging.

Future Prospects and Challenges

Looking ahead, research on NAD+ precursors may face challenges, such as individual variability in response, targeted delivery system development, and understanding long-term safety implications. Precise biomarkers are crucial for measuring real-time effectiveness of NAD+ boosters and tailoring treatments. Establishing the incorporation of NAD+ precursors into clinical practice requires large-scale, long-term clinical trials. Partnerships between academic institutions, pharmaceutical companies, and biotech firms are forming to expedite translation of preclinical findings. NAD+ precursor research holds promise for new therapeutic strategies and understanding aging. NR, NMN, and NRH offer avenues for safely boosting NAD+ levels. Ongoing research will unveil their therapeutic potential and guide clinical use.


NAD+ precursors, such as NR, NMN, and NRH, hold promise in improving health and longevity. These molecules replenish NAD+ levels, combating the effects of aging. By bypassing the challenges of direct NAD+ supplementation, they offer a practical approach to sustaining cellular function. With their therapeutic potential, these precursors may help treat metabolic disturbances, cognitive decline, and cardiovascular ailments. While safety remains a priority, research suggests that NAD+ precursors could become a cornerstone of future health regimens. Their study continues to unveil the benefits they offer, paving the way for advancements in medical science and the realization of our biological potential.


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